Module Qcert.NRA.Lang.NRA


NRA is the Nested Relational Algebra. Although it is not directly in use in the compiler, replaced instead by NRAEnv, which extends it with a separate notion of environment, it is kept in the compiler as a reference.

NRA is a small pure language without functions based on combinators (i.e., with no variables). Expressions in NRA take a single value as input.

Summary:

Compared to the version from Cluet and Moerkotte:

Section NRA.
  Require Import String.
  Require Import List.
  Require Import Compare_dec.
  Require Import EquivDec.
  Require Import Utils.
  Require Import CommonRuntime.

  Context {fruntime:foreign_runtime}.
  

Abstract Syntax


  Section Syntax.
  
By convention, "static" parameters come first, followed by so-called dependent operators. This allows for easy instanciation on those parameters

    Inductive nra : Set :=
    | NRAGetConstant : string -> nra (* global variable lookup ($$v) *)
    | NRAID : nra (* current value (ID) *)
    | NRAConst : data -> nra (* constant data (d) *)
    | NRABinop : binary_op -> nra -> nra -> nra (* binary operator (e₁ ⊠ e) *)
    | NRAUnop : unary_op -> nra -> nra (* unary operator (e) *)
    | NRAMap : nra -> nra -> nra (* map operator (χ⟨e₂⟩(e₁)) *)
    | NRAMapProduct : nra -> nra -> nra (* dependent product operator (⋈ᵈ⟨e₂⟩(e₁)) *)
    | NRAProduct : nra -> nra -> nra (* product operator (e₁ × e) *)
    | NRASelect : nra -> nra -> nra (* selection operator (σ⟨e₂⟩(e₁)) *)
    | NRADefault : nra -> nra -> nra (* default operator (e₁ ∥ e) *)
    | NRAEither : nra -> nra -> nra (* either operator (either ee) *)
    | NRAEitherConcat : nra -> nra -> nra (* either-concat operator (eitheree) *)
    | NRAApp : nra -> nra -> nra. (* compose operator (e₂ ∘ e) *)

    Tactic Notation "nra_cases" tactic(first) ident(c) :=
      first;
      [ Case_aux c "NRAGetConstant"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRAID"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRAConst"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRABinop"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRAUnop"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRAMap"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRAMapProduct"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRAProduct"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRASelect"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRADefault"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRAEither"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRAEitherConcat"%string
      | Case_aux c "NRAApp"%string ].

Equality between two NRA expressions is decidable.
  
    Global Instance nra_eqdec : EqDec nra eq.
Proof.
      change (forall x y : nra, {x = y} + {x <> y}).
      decide equality;
        try solve [apply binary_op_eqdec | apply unary_op_eqdec | apply data_eqdec | apply string_eqdec].
    Qed.

  End Syntax.

Semantics

  
  Section Semantics.
Part of the context is fixed for the rest of the development:

    Context (h:list(string*string)).
    Context (constant_env:list (string*data)).

Denotational Semantics


The semantics is defined using the main judgment Γc ; d ⊢〚e 〛⇓ d' (nra_sem) where Γc is the global environment, d is the input value, e the NRA expression and d' the resulting value.
    
The auxiliary judgment Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e〛χ ⇓ {c₂} (nra_sem_map) is used in the definition of the map χ operator.
    
The auxiliary judgment Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e〛⋈ᵈ ⇓ {c₂} (nra_map_product_select) is used in the definition of the dependant product ⋈ᵈ operator.
    
The auxiliary judgment Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e〛σ ⇓ {c₂} (nra_sem_select) is used in the definition of the selection σ operator.
    
    Section Denotation.
      Inductive nra_sem: nra -> data -> data -> Prop :=
      | sem_NRAGetConstant : forall v d d1,
          edot constant_env v = Some d1 -> (* Γc(v) = d *)
          nra_sem (NRAGetConstant v) d d1 (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚$$v〛⇓ d *)
      | sem_NRAID : forall d,
          nra_sem NRAID d d (* Γc ; dIDd *)
      | sem_NRAConst : forall d d1 d2,
          normalize_data h d1 = d2 -> (* norm(d₁) = d *)
          nra_sem (NRAConst d1) d d2 (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚d₁〛⇓ d *)
      | sem_NRABinop : forall bop e1 e2 d d1 d2 d3,
          nra_sem e1 d d1 -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ d *)
          nra_sem e2 d d2 -> (* ∧ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₂〛⇓ d *)
          binary_op_eval h bop d1 d2 = Some d3 -> (* ∧ d₁ ⊠ d₂ = d *)
          nra_sem (NRABinop bop e1 e2) d d3 (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁ ⊠ e₂〛⇓ d *)
      | sem_NRAUnop : forall uop e d d1 d2,
          nra_sem e d d1 -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e〛⇓ d *)
          unary_op_eval h uop d1 = Some d2 -> (* ∧ d₁ = d *)
          nra_sem (NRAUnop uop e) d d2 (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚⊞ e〛⇓ d *)
      | sem_NRAMap : forall e1 e2 d c1 c2,
          nra_sem e1 d (dcoll c1) -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ {c₁} *)
          nra_sem_map e2 c1 c2 -> (* ∧ Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e₂〛χ ⇓ {c₂} *)
          nra_sem (NRAMap e2 e1) d (dcoll c2) (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚χ⟨e₂⟩(e₁)〛⇓ {c₂} *)
      | sem_NRAMapProduct : forall e1 e2 d c1 c2,
          nra_sem e1 d (dcoll c1) -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ {c₁} *)
          nra_sem_map_product e2 c1 c2 -> (* ∧ Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e₂〛⋈ᵈ ⇓ {c₂} *)
          nra_sem (NRAMapProduct e2 e1) d (dcoll c2) (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚⋈ᵈ⟨e₂⟩(e₁)〛⇓ {c₂} *)
      | sem_NRAProduct_empty : forall e1 e2 d, (* Does not evaluate e if e is empty. This facilitates translation to cNNRC *)
          nra_sem e1 d (dcoll nil) -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ {} *)
          nra_sem (NRAProduct e1 e2) d (dcoll nil) (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁ × e₂〛⇓ {} *)
      | sem_NRAProduct_nonEmpty : forall e1 e2 d c1 c2 c3,
          nra_sem e1 d (dcoll c1) -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ {c₁} *)
          c1 <> nil -> (* ∧ {c₁} ≠ {} *)
          nra_sem e2 d (dcoll c2) -> (* ∧ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₂〛⇓ {c₂} *)
          product_sem c1 c2 c3 -> (* ∧ {c₁} × {c₂} ⇓ {c₃} *)
          nra_sem (NRAProduct e1 e2) d (dcoll c3) (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁ × e₂〛⇓ {c₃} *)
      | sem_NRASelect : forall e1 e2 d c1 c2,
          nra_sem e1 d (dcoll c1) -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ {c₁} *)
          nra_sem_select e2 c1 c2 -> (* ∧ Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e₂〛σ ⇓ {c₂} *)
          nra_sem (NRASelect e2 e1) d (dcoll c2) (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚σ⟨e₂⟩(e₁)〛⇓ {c₂} *)
      | sem_NRADefault_empty : forall e1 e2 d d2,
          nra_sem e1 d (dcoll nil) -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ {} *)
          nra_sem e2 d d2 -> (* ∧ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₂〛⇓ d *)
          nra_sem (NRADefault e1 e2) d d2 (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁ ∥ e₂〛⇓ d *)
      | sem_NRADefault_not_empty : forall e1 e2 d d1,
          nra_sem e1 d d1 -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ d *)
          d1 <> dcoll nil -> (* ∧ d₁ ≠ {} *)
          nra_sem (NRADefault e1 e2) d d1 (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁ ∥ e₂〛⇓ d *)
      | sem_NRAEither_left : forall e1 e2 d d1,
          nra_sem e1 d d1 -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ d *)
          nra_sem (NRAEither e1 e2) (dleft d) d1 (* ⇒ Γc ; (dleft d) ⊢〚either ee₂〛⇓ d *)
      | sem_NRAEither_right : forall e1 e2 d d2,
          nra_sem e2 d d2 -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₂〛⇓ d *)
          nra_sem (NRAEither e1 e2) (dright d) d2 (* ⇒ Γc ; (dright d) ⊢〚either ee₂〛⇓ d *)
      | sem_NRAEitherConcat_left : forall e1 e2 d r1 r2,
          nra_sem e1 d (dleft (drec r1)) -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ (dleft [r₁]) *)
          nra_sem e2 d (drec r2) -> (* ∧ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₂〛⇓ [r₂] *)
          nra_sem (NRAEitherConcat e1 e2) d (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚eitheree₂〛⇓ (dleft [r₁]⊕[r₂]) *)
                  (dleft (drec (rec_concat_sort r1 r2)))
      | sem_NRAEitherConcat_right : forall e1 e2 d r1 r2,
          nra_sem e1 d (dright (drec r1)) -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ (dright [r₁]) *)
          nra_sem e2 d (drec r2) -> (* ∧ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₂〛⇓ [r₂] *)
          nra_sem (NRAEitherConcat e1 e2) d (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚eitheree₂〛⇓ (dright [r₁]⊕[r₂]) *)
                  (dright (drec (rec_concat_sort r1 r2)))
      | sem_NRAApp : forall e1 e2 d d1 d2,
          nra_sem e1 d d1 -> (* Γc ; d ⊢〚e₁〛⇓ d *)
          nra_sem e2 d1 d2 -> (* Γc ; d₁ ⊢〚e₂〛⇓ d *)
          nra_sem (NRAApp e2 e1) d d2 (* ⇒ Γc ; d ⊢〚e₂ ∘ e₁〛⇓ d *)
      with nra_sem_map: nra -> list data -> list data -> Prop :=
      | sem_NRAMap_empty : forall e,
          nra_sem_map e nil nil (* Γc ; {} ⊢〚e〛χ ⇓ {} *)
      | sem_NRAMap_cons : forall e d1 c1 d2 c2,
          nra_sem e d1 d2 -> (* Γc ; d₁ ⊢〚e〛⇓ d *)
          nra_sem_map e c1 c2 -> (* ∧ Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e〛χ ⇓ {c₂} *)
          nra_sem_map e (d1::c1) (d2::c2) (* ⇒ Γc ; {d₁::c₁} ⊢〚e〛χ ⇓ {d₂::c₂} *)
      with nra_sem_map_product: nra -> list data -> list data -> Prop :=
      | sem_NRAMapProduct_empty : forall e,
          nra_sem_map_product e nil nil (* Γc ; {} ⊢〚e〛⋈ᵈ ⇓ {} *)
      | sem_NRAMapProduct_cons : forall e d1 c1 c2 c3 c4,
          nra_sem e d1 (dcoll c3) -> (* Γc ; d₁ ⊢〚e〛⋈ᵈ ⇓ {c₃} *)
          map_concat_sem d1 c3 c4 -> (* ∧ d₁ χ⊕ c₃ ⇓ c *)
          nra_sem_map_product e c1 c2 -> (* ∧ Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e〛⋈ᵈ ⇓ {c₂} *)
          nra_sem_map_product e (d1::c1) (c4 ++ c2) (* ⇒ Γc ; {d₁::c₁} ⊢〚e〛⋈ᵈ ⇓ {c₄}∪{c₂} *)
      with nra_sem_select: nra -> list data -> list data -> Prop :=
      | sem_NRASelect_empty : forall e,
          nra_sem_select e nil nil (* Γc ; {} ⊢〚e〛σ ⇓ {} *)
      | sem_NRASelect_true : forall e d1 c1 c2,
          nra_sem e d1 (dbool true) -> (* Γc ; d₁ ⊢〚e〛σ ⇓ true *)
          nra_sem_select e c1 c2 -> (* ∧ Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e〛σ ⇓ {c₂} *)
          nra_sem_select e (d1::c1) (d1::c2) (* ⇒ Γc ; {d₁::c₁} ⊢〚e〛σ ⇓ {d₁::c₂} *)
      | sem_NRASelect_false : forall e d1 c1 c2,
          nra_sem e d1 (dbool false) -> (* Γc ; d₁ ⊢〚e〛σ ⇓ false *)
          nra_sem_select e c1 c2 -> (* ∧ Γc ; {c₁} ⊢〚e〛σ ⇓ {c₂} *)
          nra_sem_select e (d1::c1) c2 (* ⇒ Γc ; {d₁::c₁} ⊢〚e〛σ ⇓ {c₂} *)
      .

    End Denotation.

    Section Evaluation.
      
      Fixpoint nra_eval (e:nra) (din:data) : option data :=
        match e with
        | NRAGetConstant s =>
          edot constant_env s
        | NRAID =>
          Some din
        | NRAConst d =>
          Some (normalize_data h d)
        | NRABinop bop e1 e2 =>
          olift2
            (fun d1 d2 => binary_op_eval h bop d1 d2)
            (nra_eval e1 din) (nra_eval e2 din)
        | NRAUnop uop e =>
          olift (fun d1 => unary_op_eval h uop d1) (nra_eval e din)
        | NRAMap e2 e1 =>
          let aux_map c1 :=
              lift_oncoll (fun d1 => lift dcoll (lift_map (nra_eval e2) d1)) c1
          in olift aux_map (nra_eval e1 din)
        | NRAMapProduct e2 e1 =>
          let aux_mapconcat c1 :=
              lift_oncoll (fun d1 => lift dcoll (omap_product (nra_eval e2) d1)) c1
          in olift aux_mapconcat (nra_eval e1 din)
        | NRAProduct e1 e2 =>
          let aux_product d :=
              lift_oncoll
                (fun c1 => lift dcoll (omap_product (fun _ => nra_eval e2 din) c1)) d
          in olift aux_product (nra_eval e1 din)
        | NRASelect e2 e1 =>
          let pred d1 :=
              match nra_eval e2 d1 with
              | Some (dbool b) => Some b
              | _ => None
              end
          in
          let aux_select d :=
              lift_oncoll (fun d1 => lift dcoll (lift_filter pred d1)) d
          in
          olift aux_select (nra_eval e1 din)
        | NRADefault e1 e2 =>
          olift (fun d1 =>
                   match d1 with
                   | dcoll nil => nra_eval e2 din
                   | _ => Some d1
                   end)
                (nra_eval e1 din)
        | NRAEither e1 e2 =>
          match din with
          | dleft d1 => nra_eval e1 d1
          | dright d2 => nra_eval e2 d2
          | _ => None
          end
        | NRAEitherConcat e1 e2 =>
          match nra_eval e1 din, nra_eval e2 din with
          | Some (dleft (drec l)), Some (drec t) =>
            Some (dleft (drec (rec_concat_sort l t)))
          | Some (dright (drec r)), Some (drec t) =>
            Some (dright (drec (rec_concat_sort r t)))
          | _, _ => None
          end
        | NRAApp e2 e1 =>
          olift (fun d1 => (nra_eval e2 d1)) (nra_eval e1 din)
        end.
    End Evaluation.

    Section EvalCorrect.
Auxiliary correctness lemmas for map, map_product and select judgments.
      Lemma nra_eval_map_correct : forall e l1 l2,
        (forall d1 d2 : data, nra_eval e d1 = Some d2 -> nra_sem e d1 d2) ->
        lift_map (nra_eval e) l1 = Some l2 ->
        nra_sem_map e l1 l2.
Proof.
        intros.
        revert l2 H0.
        induction l1; simpl in *; intros.
        - inversion H0; econstructor.
        - case_eq (nra_eval e a); intros; rewrite H1 in *; [|congruence].
          unfold lift in H0.
          case_eq (lift_map (nra_eval e) l1); intros; rewrite H2 in *; [|congruence].
          specialize (IHl1 l eq_refl).
          inversion H0.
          econstructor; eauto.
      Qed.
          
      Lemma nra_eval_map_product_correct : forall e l1 l2,
        (forall d1 d2 : data, nra_eval e d1 = Some d2 -> nra_sem e d1 d2) ->
        omap_product (nra_eval e) l1 = Some l2 ->
        nra_sem_map_product e l1 l2.
Proof.
        intros.
        revert l2 H0.
        induction l1; simpl in *; intros.
        - inversion H0; econstructor.
        - generalize (omap_product_cons_inv (nra_eval e) l1 a l2 H0); intros.
          elim H1; clear H1; intros.
          elim H1; clear H1; intros.
          elim H1; clear H1; intros.
          elim H2; clear H2; intros.
          subst.
          unfold oncoll_map_concat in H1.
          case_eq (nra_eval e a); intros; rewrite H3 in *; [|congruence].
          case_eq d; intros; rewrite H4 in H1; try congruence.
          subst.
          specialize (H a (dcoll l) H3).
          rewrite omap_concat_correct_and_complete in H1.
          apply (sem_NRAMapProduct_cons e a l1 x0 l x).
          + assumption.
          + assumption.
          + apply IHl1; assumption.
      Qed.

      Lemma nra_eval_select_correct e l1 l2 :
        (forall d1 d2 : data, nra_eval e d1 = Some d2 -> nra_sem e d1 d2) ->
        lift_filter
          (fun d1 : data =>
             match nra_eval e d1 with
             | Some dunit => None
             | Some (dnat _) => None
             | Some (dbool b) => Some b
             | Some (dstring _) => None
             | Some (dcoll _) => None
             | Some (drec _) => None
             | Some (dleft _) => None
             | Some (dright _) => None
             | Some (dbrand _ _) => None
             | Some (dforeign _) => None
             | None => None
             end) l1 = Some l2 ->
        nra_sem_select e l1 l2.
Proof.
        intro.
        revert l2; induction l1; simpl; intros.
        - inversion H0. econstructor.
        - case_eq (nra_eval e a); intros; rewrite H1 in *; simpl in *.
          destruct d; simpl in *; try congruence.
          case_eq
            (lift_filter
               (fun d1 : data =>
                  match nra_eval e d1 with
                  | Some dunit => None
                  | Some (dnat _) => None
                  | Some (dbool b) => Some b
                  | Some (dstring _) => None
                  | Some (dcoll _) => None
                  | Some (drec _) => None
                  | Some (dleft _) => None
                  | Some (dright _) => None
                  | Some (dbrand _ _) => None
                  | Some (dforeign _) => None
                  | None => None
                  end) l1);
            intros; rewrite H2 in *; clear H2; [|congruence].
          specialize (IHl1 l eq_refl).
          destruct b; simpl in *;
            simpl in *; inversion H0; clear H0; subst.
          + econstructor; eauto.
          + econstructor; eauto.
          + congruence.
      Qed.

      Lemma omap_product_some_is_oproduct d1 d2 l1 l2 :
        omap_product (fun _ : data => Some d2) (d1 :: l1) = Some l2 ->
        exists l, d2 = dcoll l /\ oproduct (d1::l1) l = Some l2.
Proof.
        intros.
        unfold omap_product, oproduct in *; simpl in *.
        case_eq d2; intros; rewrite H0 in *; simpl in *; try congruence.
        exists l; split; [reflexivity| ].
        unfold oncoll_map_concat in H.
        destruct (omap_concat d1 l); [|congruence].
        assumption.
      Qed.

Evaluation is correct wrt. the NRA semantics.

      Lemma nra_eval_correct : forall e d1 d2,
          nra_eval e d1 = Some d2 ->
          nra_sem e d1 d2.
Proof.
        induction e; simpl; intros.
        - econstructor; eauto.
        - inversion H; econstructor; eauto.
        - inversion H; econstructor; eauto.
        - unfold olift2 in H.
          case_eq (nra_eval e1 d1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; [|congruence].
          case_eq (nra_eval e2 d1); intros; rewrite H1 in *; [|congruence].
          specialize (IHe1 d1 d H0); specialize (IHe2 d1 d0 H1);
            econstructor; eauto.
        - unfold olift in H.
          case_eq (nra_eval e d1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; [|congruence].
          specialize (IHe d1 d H0); econstructor; eauto.
        - unfold olift in H.
          case_eq (nra_eval e2 d1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; [|congruence].
          unfold lift_oncoll in H.
          destruct d; simpl in H; try congruence.
          unfold lift in H.
          case_eq (lift_map (nra_eval e1) l); intros; rewrite H1 in *; [|congruence].
          inversion H; subst; clear H.
          econstructor; eauto.
          apply nra_eval_map_correct; auto.
        - unfold olift in H.
          case_eq (nra_eval e2 d1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; [|congruence].
          unfold lift_oncoll in H.
          destruct d; simpl in H; try congruence.
          unfold lift in H.
          case_eq (omap_product (nra_eval e1) l); intros; rewrite H1 in *; [|congruence].
          inversion H; subst; clear H.
          econstructor; eauto.
          apply nra_eval_map_product_correct; auto.
        - unfold olift2 in H.
          case_eq (nra_eval e1 d1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; simpl in *; [|congruence].
          destruct d; simpl in *; try congruence.
          destruct l; simpl in *.
          (* Left collection is empty *)
          + inversion H; subst.
            econstructor; eauto.
          (* Left collection is not empty *)
          + specialize (IHe1 d1 (dcoll (d::l)) H0).
            unfold lift in H.
            case_eq (nra_eval e2 d1); intros; rewrite H1 in *.
            * case_eq (omap_product (fun _ : data => nra_eval e2 d1) (d :: l)); intros;
                rewrite H1 in H2; simpl in *; rewrite H2 in *; [|congruence].
              inversion H; clear H; subst.
              elim (omap_product_some_is_oproduct d d0 l l0 H2); intros.
              elim H; clear H; intros; subst.
              econstructor; eauto. congruence.
              apply oproduct_correct; assumption.
            * unfold omap_product in H; simpl in H.
              congruence.
        - unfold olift in H.
          case_eq (nra_eval e2 d1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; [|congruence].
          unfold lift_oncoll in H.
          destruct d; simpl in H; try congruence.
          unfold lift in H.
          specialize (IHe2 d1 (dcoll l) H0).
          case_eq
            (lift_filter
               (fun d1 : data =>
                  match nra_eval e1 d1 with
                  | Some dunit => None
                  | Some (dnat _) => None
                  | Some (dbool b) => Some b
                  | Some (dstring _) => None
                  | Some (dcoll _) => None
                  | Some (drec _) => None
                  | Some (dleft _) => None
                  | Some (dright _) => None
                  | Some (dbrand _ _) => None
                  | Some (dforeign _) => None
                  | None => None
                  end) l); intros; rewrite H1 in *; [|congruence].
          inversion H; clear H; subst.
          econstructor; eauto.
          apply nra_eval_select_correct; auto.
        - unfold olift in H.
          case_eq (nra_eval e1 d1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; [|congruence].
          elim (data_eq_dec d (dcoll nil)); intros.
          subst.
          + econstructor; eauto.
          + destruct d; inversion H; subst; auto;
              eapply sem_NRADefault_not_empty; auto;
                destruct l; auto; inversion H; subst; auto.
            congruence.
        - destruct d1; try congruence.
          econstructor; apply IHe1; auto.
          econstructor; apply IHe2; auto.
        - case_eq (nra_eval e1 d1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; [|congruence].
          destruct d; intros; try congruence.
         + destruct d; intros; try congruence.
            case_eq (nra_eval e2 d1); intros; rewrite H1 in *; [|congruence].
            destruct d; intros; try congruence.
            inversion H; subst; clear H; intros.
            econstructor; eauto.
          + destruct d; intros; try congruence.
            case_eq (nra_eval e2 d1); intros; rewrite H1 in *; [|congruence].
            destruct d; intros; try congruence.
            inversion H; subst; clear H; intros.
            econstructor; eauto.
        - unfold olift in H.
          case_eq (nra_eval e2 d1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; [|congruence].
          econstructor; eauto.
      Qed.
 
Auxiliary lemmas used in the completeness theorem

      Lemma nra_map_eval_complete e c1 c2:
        (forall d1 d2 : data, nra_sem e d1 d2 -> nra_eval e d1 = Some d2) ->
        (nra_sem_map e c1 c2) ->
        lift dcoll (lift_map (nra_eval e) c1) = Some (dcoll c2).
Proof.
        intros.
        revert c2 H0.
        induction c1; simpl in *; intros.
        - inversion H0; reflexivity.
        - inversion H0; clear H0; subst.
          rewrite (H a d2 H4); simpl.
          specialize (IHc1 c3 H6).
          unfold lift in *.
          case_eq (lift_map (nra_eval e) c1); intros; rewrite H0 in *; [|congruence].
          inversion IHc1; clear IHc1; subst; reflexivity.
      Qed.
        
      Lemma nra_map_product_eval_complete e c1 c2:
        (forall d1 d2 : data, nra_sem e d1 d2 -> nra_eval e d1 = Some d2) ->
        (nra_sem_map_product e c1 c2) ->
        lift dcoll (omap_product (nra_eval e) c1) = Some (dcoll c2).
Proof.
        intros.
        revert c2 H0.
        induction c1; simpl in *; intros.
        - inversion H0; reflexivity.
        - inversion H0; clear H0; subst.
          unfold omap_product in *.
          unfold oncoll_map_concat in *; simpl.
          rewrite (H a (dcoll c4) H3); simpl.
          rewrite <- omap_concat_correct_and_complete in H5.
          rewrite H5; simpl.
          specialize (IHc1 c3 H7).
          unfold lift in *.
          destruct (lift_flat_map
             (fun a : data =>
              match nra_eval e a with
              | Some dunit => None
              | Some (dnat _) => None
              | Some (dbool _) => None
              | Some (dstring _) => None
              | Some (dcoll y) => omap_concat a y
              | Some (drec _) => None
              | Some (dleft _) => None
              | Some (dright _) => None
              | Some (dbrand _ _) => None
              | Some (dforeign _) => None
              | None => None
              end) c1); [|congruence].
          inversion IHc1; reflexivity.
      Qed.
        
      Lemma nra_select_eval_complete e c1 c2:
        (forall d1 d2 : data, nra_sem e d1 d2 -> nra_eval e d1 = Some d2) ->
        (nra_sem_select e c1 c2) ->
        lift dcoll
             (lift_filter
                (fun d0 : data =>
                   match nra_eval e d0 with
                   | Some dunit => None
                   | Some (dnat _) => None
                   | Some (dbool b) => Some b
                   | Some (dstring _) => None
                   | Some (dcoll _) => None
                   | Some (drec _) => None
                   | Some (dleft _) => None
                   | Some (dright _) => None
                   | Some (dbrand _ _) => None
                   | Some (dforeign _) => None
                   | None => None
                   end) c1) = Some (dcoll c2).
Proof.
        intros.
        revert c2 H0.
        induction c1; simpl in *; intros.
        - inversion H0; reflexivity.
        - inversion H0; clear H0; subst.
          (* condition is true *)
          + rewrite (H a (dbool true) H4); simpl.
            specialize (IHc1 c3 H6).
            destruct
              (lift_filter
                 (fun d0 : data =>
                    match nra_eval e d0 with
                    | Some dunit => None
                    | Some (dnat _) => None
                    | Some (dbool b) => Some b
                    | Some (dstring _) => None
                    | Some (dcoll _) => None
                    | Some (drec _) => None
                    | Some (dleft _) => None
                    | Some (dright _) => None
                    | Some (dbrand _ _) => None
                    | Some (dforeign _) => None
                    | None => None
                    end) c1); simpl in *; [|congruence].
            inversion IHc1; reflexivity.
          + rewrite (H a (dbool false) H4); simpl.
            specialize (IHc1 c2 H6).
            destruct
              (lift_filter
                 (fun d0 : data =>
                    match nra_eval e d0 with
                    | Some dunit => None
                    | Some (dnat _) => None
                    | Some (dbool b) => Some b
                    | Some (dstring _) => None
                    | Some (dcoll _) => None
                    | Some (drec _) => None
                    | Some (dleft _) => None
                    | Some (dright _) => None
                    | Some (dbrand _ _) => None
                    | Some (dforeign _) => None
                    | None => None
                    end) c1); simpl in *; [|congruence].
            inversion IHc1; reflexivity.
      Qed.

Evaluation is complete wrt. the NRA semantics.

      Lemma nra_eval_complete : forall e d1 d2,
          nra_sem e d1 d2 ->
          nra_eval e d1 = Some d2.
Proof.
        induction e; intros.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl; auto.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl; auto.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl; auto.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl.
          rewrite (IHe1 d1 d0 H3);
            rewrite (IHe2 d1 d3 H6); simpl; auto.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl.
          rewrite (IHe d1 d0 H2); simpl; auto.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl.
          rewrite (IHe2 d1 (dcoll c1) H2); simpl.
          apply nra_map_eval_complete; auto.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl.
          rewrite (IHe2 d1 (dcoll c1) H2); simpl.
          apply nra_map_product_eval_complete; auto.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl.
          (* empty first collection *)
          + rewrite (IHe1 d1 (dcoll nil) H4); reflexivity.
          + destruct c1; [congruence| ]; clear H3.
            rewrite (IHe1 d1 (dcoll (d :: c1)) H2); simpl.
            rewrite <- oproduct_correct_and_complete in H7.
            rewrite (IHe2 d1 (dcoll c2) H4).
            unfold oproduct in H7.
            unfold omap_product.
            unfold oncoll_map_concat.
            unfold omap_concat in *.
            rewrite H7; reflexivity.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl.
          rewrite (IHe2 d1 (dcoll c1) H2); simpl.
          apply nra_select_eval_complete; auto.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl.
          (* empty collection case *)
          + rewrite (IHe1 d1 (dcoll nil) H2); simpl; auto.
          (* non-empty collection case *)
          + rewrite (IHe1 d1 d2 H2); simpl; auto.
            destruct d2; try congruence.
            destruct l; congruence.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl; auto.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl.
          (* left case *)
          + rewrite (IHe1 d1 (dleft (drec r1)) H2); simpl.
            rewrite (IHe2 d1 (drec r2) H5); reflexivity.
          (* right case *)
          + rewrite (IHe1 d1 (dright (drec r1)) H2); simpl.
            rewrite (IHe2 d1 (drec r2) H5); reflexivity.
        - inversion H; subst; simpl.
          rewrite (IHe2 d1 d0 H2); simpl.
          rewrite (IHe1 d0 d2 H5); reflexivity.
      Qed.

Main equivalence theorem.
      
      Theorem nra_eval_correct_and_complete : forall e d d',
          nra_eval e d = Some d' <-> nra_sem e d d'.
Proof.
        split.
        apply nra_eval_correct.
        apply nra_eval_complete.
      Qed.

    End EvalCorrect.

    Section EvalNormalized.
      Lemma data_normalized_orecconcat {x y z}:
        orecconcat x y = Some z ->
        data_normalized h x -> data_normalized h y ->
        data_normalized h z.
Proof.
        destruct x; simpl; try discriminate.
        destruct y; simpl; try discriminate.
        inversion 1; subst.
        apply data_normalized_rec_concat_sort; trivial.
      Qed.

      Lemma nra_eval_normalized {op:nra} {d:data} {o} :
        Forall (fun x => data_normalized h (snd x)) constant_env ->
        nra_eval op d = Some o ->
        data_normalized h d ->
        data_normalized h o.
Proof.
        intro HconstNorm.
        revert d o.
        induction op; simpl.
        - intros.
          unfold edot in H.
          apply assoc_lookupr_in in H.
          rewrite Forall_forall in HconstNorm.
          specialize (HconstNorm (s,o)); simpl in *.
          auto.
        - inversion 1; subst; trivial.
        - inversion 1; subst; intros.
          apply normalize_normalizes.
        - intros.
          specialize (IHop1 d).
          specialize (IHop2 d).
          destruct (nra_eval op1 d); simpl in *; try discriminate.
          destruct (nra_eval op2 d); simpl in *; try discriminate.
          apply (binary_op_eval_normalized h) in H; eauto.
        - intros.
          specialize (IHop d).
          destruct (nra_eval op d); simpl in *; try discriminate.
          apply unary_op_eval_normalized in H; eauto.
        - intros;
            specialize (IHop2 d);
            destruct (nra_eval op2 d); simpl in *; try discriminate;
              specialize (IHop2 _ (eq_refl _) H0).
          destruct d0; simpl in *; try discriminate.
          apply some_lift in H; destruct H; subst.
          constructor.
          inversion IHop2; subst.
          apply (lift_map_Forall e H1); eauto.
        - intros;
            specialize (IHop2 d);
            destruct (nra_eval op2 d); simpl in *; try discriminate;
              specialize (IHop2 _ (eq_refl _) H0).
          destruct d0; simpl in *; try discriminate.
          apply some_lift in H; destruct H; subst.
          constructor.
          inversion IHop2; subst.
          unfold omap_product in *.
          apply (lift_flat_map_Forall e H1); intros.
          specialize (IHop1 x0).
          unfold oncoll_map_concat in H.
          match_destr_in H.
          specialize (IHop1 _ (eq_refl _) H2).
          unfold omap_concat in H.
          match_destr_in H.
          inversion IHop1; subst.
          apply (lift_map_Forall H H4); intros.
          eapply (data_normalized_orecconcat H3); trivial.
        - intros;
            specialize (IHop1 d);
            destruct (nra_eval op1 d); simpl in *; try discriminate.
          specialize (IHop1 _ (eq_refl _) H0).
          destruct d0; simpl in *; try discriminate.
          apply some_lift in H; destruct H; subst.
          constructor.
          inversion IHop1; subst.
          unfold omap_product in *.
          apply (lift_flat_map_Forall e H1); intros.
          specialize (IHop2 d).
          unfold oncoll_map_concat in H.
          match_destr_in H.
          specialize (IHop2 _ (eq_refl _) H0).
          unfold omap_concat in H.
          match_destr_in H.
          inversion IHop2; subst.
          apply (lift_map_Forall H H4); intros.
          eapply (data_normalized_orecconcat H3); trivial.
        - intros;
          specialize (IHop2 d);
          destruct (nra_eval op2 d); simpl in *; try discriminate;
            specialize (IHop2 _ (eq_refl _) H0).
          destruct d0; simpl in *; try discriminate.
          apply some_lift in H; destruct H; subst.
          constructor.
          inversion IHop2; subst.
          unfold omap_product in *.
          apply (lift_filter_Forall e H1).
        - intros;
            specialize (IHop1 d);
            destruct (nra_eval op1 d); simpl in *; try discriminate.
          specialize (IHop1 _ (eq_refl _) H0).
          destruct d0; simpl in *; try solve [inversion H; subst; trivial].
          destruct l; simpl; eauto 3.
          inversion H; subst; trivial.
        - intros.
          destruct d; try discriminate; inversion H0; subst; eauto.
        - intros.
          specialize (IHop1 d).
          specialize (IHop2 d).
          destruct (nra_eval op1 d); simpl in *; try discriminate.
          destruct (nra_eval op2 d); simpl in *; try discriminate.
          specialize (IHop1 _ (eq_refl _) H0).
          specialize (IHop2 _ (eq_refl _) H0).
          destruct d0; try discriminate.
          + destruct d0; try discriminate.
            destruct d1; try discriminate.
            inversion IHop1; subst.
            inversion H; subst.
            constructor.
            apply data_normalized_rec_concat_sort; trivial.
          + destruct d0; try discriminate.
            destruct d1; try discriminate.
            inversion IHop1; subst.
            inversion H; subst.
            constructor.
            apply data_normalized_rec_concat_sort; trivial.
          + repeat (destruct d0; try discriminate).
        - intros. specialize (IHop2 d).
          destruct (nra_eval op2 d); simpl in *; try discriminate.
          eauto.
      Qed.
    End EvalNormalized.
  End Semantics.
  
  Section Top.
    Context (h:list(string*string)).
    Definition nra_eval_top (q:nra) (cenv:bindings) : option data :=
      nra_eval h (rec_sort cenv) q dunit.
  End Top.

  Section FreeVars.
    Fixpoint nra_free_variables (q:nra) : list string :=
      match q with
      | NRAGetConstant s => s :: nil
      | NRAID => nil
      | NRAConst _ => nil
      | NRABinop _ q1 q2 =>
        app (nra_free_variables q1) (nra_free_variables q2)
      | NRAUnop _ q1 =>
        (nra_free_variables q1)
      | NRAMap q1 q2 =>
        app (nra_free_variables q1) (nra_free_variables q2)
      | NRAMapProduct q1 q2 =>
        app (nra_free_variables q1) (nra_free_variables q2)
      | NRAProduct q1 q2 =>
        app (nra_free_variables q1) (nra_free_variables q2)
      | NRASelect q1 q2 =>
        app (nra_free_variables q1) (nra_free_variables q2)
      | NRADefault q1 q2 =>
        app (nra_free_variables q1) (nra_free_variables q2)
      | NRAEither ql qr =>
        app (nra_free_variables ql) (nra_free_variables qr)
      | NRAEitherConcat q1 q2 =>
        app (nra_free_variables q1) (nra_free_variables q2)
      | NRAApp q1 q2 =>
        app (nra_free_variables q1) (nra_free_variables q2)
    end.
  End FreeVars.

End NRA.


Nraebraic plan application

Notation "hOp @ₐ xc" := (nra_eval h c Op x) (at level 10).


Delimit Scope nra_scope with nra.

Notation "'ID'" := (NRAID) (at level 50) : nra_scope.
Notation "TABLEs ⟩" := (NRAGetConstant s) (at level 50) : nra_core_scope.
Notation "‵‵ c" := (NRAConst (dconst c)) (at level 0) : nra_scope.
Notation "‵ c" := (NRAConst c) (at level 0) : nra_scope.
Notation "‵{||}" := (NRAConst (dcoll nil)) (at level 0) : nra_scope.
Notation "‵[||]" := (NRAConst (drec nil)) (at level 50) : nra_scope.

Notation "r1r2" := (NRABinop OpAnd r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 65): nra_scope.
Notation "r1r2" := (NRABinop OpOr r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "r1r2" := (NRABinop OpEqual r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "r1r2" := (NRABinop OpLt r1 r2) (no associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "r1r2" := (NRABinop OpBagUnion r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "r1r2" := (NRABinop OpBagDiff r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "r1min r2" := (NRABinop OpBagMin r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "r1max r2" := (NRABinop OpBagMax r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "pr" := ((NRABinop OpRecConcat) p r) (at level 70) : nra_scope.
Notation "pr" := ((NRABinop OpRecMerge) p r) (at level 70) : nra_scope.

Notation "¬( r1 )" := (NRAUnop OpNeg r1) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "ε( r1 )" := (NRAUnop OpDistinct r1) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "♯count( r1 )" := (NRAUnop OpCount r1) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "♯flatten( d )" := (NRAUnop OpFlatten d) (at level 50) : nra_scope.
Notation "‵{| d |}" := ((NRAUnop OpBag) d) (at level 50) : nra_scope.
Notation "‵[| ( s , r ) |]" := ((NRAUnop (OpRec s)) r) (at level 50) : nra_scope.
Notation "¬π[ s1 ]( r )" := ((NRAUnop (OpRecRemove s1)) r) (at level 50) : nra_scope.
Notation "π[ s1 ]( r )" := ((NRAUnop (OpRecProject s1)) r) (at level 50) : nra_scope.
Notation "p · r" := ((NRAUnop (OpDot r)) p) (left associativity, at level 40): nra_scope.

Notation "χ⟨ p ⟩( r )" := (NRAMap p r) (at level 70) : nra_scope.
Notation "⋈ᵈ⟨ e2 ⟩( e1 )" := (NRAMapProduct e2 e1) (at level 70) : nra_scope.
Notation "r1 × r2" := (NRAProduct r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "σ⟨ p ⟩( r )" := (NRASelect p r) (at level 70) : nra_scope.
Notation "r1r2" := (NRADefault r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 70): nra_scope.
Notation "r1r2" := (NRAApp r1 r2) (right associativity, at level 60): nra_scope.

Hint Resolve nra_eval_normalized.

Tactic Notation "nra_cases" tactic(first) ident(c) :=
  first;
  [ Case_aux c "NRAGetConstant"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRAID"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRAConst"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRABinop"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRAUnop"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRAMap"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRAMapProduct"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRAProduct"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRASelect"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRADefault"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRAEither"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRAEitherConcat"%string
  | Case_aux c "NRAApp"%string ].